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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

立场:呼吁结束政府停摆局面

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中国正考虑出售在政府补贴政策下累积的过剩储备。
《星球大战:侠盗一号》预计2016年12月16日上映。
The experts warn that adding a number or symbol to a common word is also an ineffective trick.‘Hackers know your tricks, and merely tweaking an easily guessable password does not make it secure,’ said Slain.

过去十年中,只有3颗10克拉级且硬度相当的鲜彩蓝钻被拍卖,3颗都未达到12克拉,而且有瑕疵。
The Irish. They sing, dance, drink and sing some more. The lads were singing lullabies to a little baby in Bordeaux to try and get it to go to sleep.
iPhone 8

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

7月全国建材家居景气指数环比上升2.94点

shatter
与此同时,法国拉罗谢尔高等商学院(La Rochelle Business School)的排名却下滑12个位置,排在第60位,去年该学校是排名上升最快的学校之一。
They were discovered in the modern-day Jiangsu Province near Shanghai inside the ancient tombs belonging to the rich and powerful.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

但是,当《老友记》第二季浓墨重彩地展现卡罗尔和苏珊的同性恋婚礼时,这个剧集就朝着人人平等的方向迈出了一大步。幕后,执行制片人玛塔·考夫曼说:"国家广播公司预计会接到成千上万的投诉电话和邮件"。然而在这部剧集上映之后,收到的恶意信件却是寥寥无几。原来,大家根本就不在乎。
Blue skies will not be, and should not be, a luxury.
Attraction: The adventure of a lifetime

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Reese Witherspoon dreamt of being a non-traditionalist, reportedly wanting to transform the best actress statue she won for Walk the Line into a door knocker or a necklace (“statement” jewellery would not have cut the mustard). Neither option being practical, however, he now stands in her living room.
  • 广州:新增19个二手房自助网签服务点
  • 单词figure 联想记忆:
  • 湖南日报连发四篇社论 痛批长沙楼市乱象
  • 杭州楼市分化:七成二手房成交价格下跌
  • 1997:H5N1传染人类1997: H5N1 Infects Humans
    ●"Woman arrested for defecating on boss’ desk after winning the lottery"

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 香港批准征收一手房空置税 分析:对房市影响有限, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

广州住房均价领涨全国 价格洼地正在被填平

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

链家被曝短信威胁客户 回应称“内部并无此工作人员”

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 周边环境:这栋房屋坐落在摩德纳岛(Modena Island),距萨凡纳市中心大约20英里(约32公里)。据该房源的代理人说,该社区设有门禁,在栎树丛与咸水湿地之间坐落着大约20栋房屋。摩德纳岛是斯基达韦岛(Skidaway Island)的一部分,岛上有一座由佐治亚大学的海洋学研究所和一座大型州立公园。
    Chinese growth figures have long been known to be artificially smooth, but now the economy is easily the world’s largest on purchasing power exchange rates, the statistical massages have wider consequences.
  • THE BRIDGE (Hulu, Friday) The second season of this Danish-Swedish crime drama (the source for FX’s recently canceled series of the same name) once again involves the Oresund Bridge connecting the two countries.
    Its corporate customers value the school’s flexibility and ability to innovate. “We have developed a programme which is co-delivered with an experimental learning provider,” commented one client responding to the FT survey. “Iese has been a true partner in this process and our business has benefited with an energised and prepared executive bench.”
    谷歌研究员发现,用安全性问题作为恢复账号登录的唯一方式,并不是那么有效。
    游戏平台:Xbox One
    Boston Consulting Group could also be poised to make a change given its managing partner, Richard Lesser, is due to come to the end of his second term in October. His future is unclear, however, as the firm declined to comment on its election process or how many terms its leader can serve.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 煤炭钢铁去产能有望加量 或扩至水泥等四大行业
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 楼市政策一再宽松 金九银十成交量增长前景可期

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

单词portion 联想记忆:
4.虚拟助理:增长了17.6%
The Norwegian Nobel Committee made the announcement Friday in Oslo, saying the three women will split the coveted award for "their nonviolent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights."
Stand: Wal-Mart U.S. President and CEO Bill Simon pledged to hire veterans
n. 初次登场,首次露面 v. 初次登场
这里有一些散步和骑行的小径可通往其他的湖滨社区以及市中心,骑车去市中心15分钟可达,开车10分钟。附近有步行者艺术中心(Walker Art Center)和几座博物馆。冬天湖上很多人玩冰球和滑冰运动;夏天则流行划独木舟、游泳和钓鱼。
Jinan took the first spot partly because of massive infrastructure construction such as building a subway and other projects designed to better use rainwater. Harbin's heavy traffic during rush hour is more due to poor urban planning, according to the report.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • I formerly had an Android device (even though I have had a MacBook since 2009 – weird, I know). After switching this summer, I quickly realized the power of iPhone “Reminders.” Each time a reminder is due, your iPhone buzzes and displays a pop-up. You can snooze it or mark as completed. In addition, you can set up recurring reminders, which are perfect for remembering to mail estimated quarterly tax payments, renewing subscriptions, running payroll and other things you tend to forget.
  • 调查称购房者对楼市信心指数呈增长态势
  • People in fourth-tier and smaller cities have economic pressures close to the national average level in terms of income, education, medical services and elderly care, while family and human relationship stress are higher than second- and third-tier cities.
    My fellow trainer, Sylvia Guinan, made me aware of these rules that a husband has laid out for his wife to follow during the 2014 World Cup.
  • 房贷新政对市场后续影响:楼市回暖走向仍会分化
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 冲击奖项:最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是克莱门特了。
    Businesswomen are booming in Asia: The whole region makes a strong showing, from China and Singapore to New Zealand and Thailand. Entrepreneurship is on the rise: see Zhang Xin (No. 50) , Sun Yafang (No. 77) and Solina Chau (No. 80). And Asian region women are showing their political might, from newcomer Park Geun-hye, the South Korean president (No. 11) and Burmese dissident and parliamentarian Aung San Suu Kyi (No. 29) to Australian PM Julia Gillard (No. 28) and Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra (No. 31).
  • n. 姿势,态度,情形
    The report said families back home receive an average of $200 a month, which makes up 60 percent of the household income.Using the steady flow of remittances, families can buy food, get housing, go to school, access healthcare, improve sanitation, or even invest in a business and have some savings, the report said.
  • Theresa May is still facing resistance from within her own party. Vince Cable, the Liberal Democrats’ sage and leader, still thinks Brexit may not really happen.
    n. 锦标赛,冠军,拥护
  • “十二五”期间,中国货物出口年均增长6.5%,占全球的份额从2010年的10.4%提升到2015年的13.2%,速度明显快于全球其他主要经济体。而服务贸易年均增长超过13.6%,位居世界第二。
    In terms of individual commodities, coffee prices, which are trading at about $1.62 a pound, are expected to decline significantly, with an especially bearish outlook on arabica coffee.
    Princess Agents
  • awkward
    《傲骨贤妻》(The Good Wife):艾丽西娅(Alicia)的秘密暧昧对象威尔(Will,乔希·查尔斯[Josh Charles]饰)在第五季末死去,CBS频道的这部性感法庭剧似乎要完蛋了,但是第六季却似乎充满了疯狂的能量——艾丽西娅初露头角的政治竞选、新旧公司的权力之争、合伙人卡里(Cary)的棘手法律事务。艾丽西娅不再那么完美,《傲骨贤妻》因此更好看了。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 照明智能化显尴尬:难入百姓家、难登办公室 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

11上市公司年底卖房:多公司遭遇卖房难 有的打折卖

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

黑龙江集中整治房地产市场乱象 重点打击投机炒房行为和黑中介

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

掌握“大数据”,助力门窗企业抢占市场

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

切实将“套路贷”关进法律笼子

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Summly was backed by Horizons Ventures, the venture capital arm of Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing, and other tech and media names including actors Ashton Kutcher and Stephen Fry, Spotify’s Shakil Khan and Zynga’s Mark Pincus .
  • 当新员工迈入QuikTrip位于塔尔萨的总部时,他们可没功夫去害羞:刚开始的几天,他们的办公桌上都摆着满满一大桶糖果。路过的同事常常停下来做自我介绍,顺手也抓块糖吃。
  • 地板企业要壮大 品牌建设是关键

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Rank: 2
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • in进入,stitute站,建立-站进去;进入建立的状态-创立
    “We sell cars+ , if you don’t give us cars, naturally we won’t be able to go on, we’ll close,” Wang said in an interview, estimating import dealers are losing between 3 million and 10 million yuan a year each. The group seeking compensation represents 30 of the roughly 40 remaining imported Hyundai dealers in the country.
    中国早已超越了俄罗斯成为紧随美国之后的世界第二大强国。
  • 其他机构有宝钢集团(Shanghai Baosteel Group)旗下为钢材交易商提供融资的欧冶云商(Ouyeel)、中国第六大银行招商银行(China Merchants Bank)旗下专注财富管理领域的小企业e家(Small Entrepreneur)等。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 她还表示,由于西方一些国家的经济条件和反移民情绪,许多中国学生发现现在很难留在这些国家。
  • 2017年1月我国陶瓷出口额比去年同期增长10.4%
  • Chinese cellphone maker giant Huawei expects its smartphone shipments to grow 29 percent year-on-year to reach 139 million in 2016, compared with an estimated global average shipment growth of 0.6 percent.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 家居销售下半年市场比上半年艰难
  • Household substance abuse
  • 2016东莞家具业现状调查:“倒闭潮”远不是真相
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

家装家具成第二季投诉新热点 投诉涉及面广

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 2015陶卫行业数据盘点 整体形势较为严峻
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 1月家居消费需求进入淡季 促销力度不输十一
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

●"Pope Francis Shocks World, Endorses Donald Trump for President, Releases Statement"

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

单词embrace 联想记忆:
9.Be Honest
You turn back the passage and want to find the Page 12, and then you smile.
We should stipulate at this point that neither of us have any idea how good this draft is going to be because the college season is barely underway. It sure looks nice, what with all those freshmen stacked up together in the lottery.
It was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair…
来自的日本的Kazutaka Kurihara和 Koji Tsukada被授予声学奖,以奖励他们发明的“沉默枪”——这是一种可以打断人说话的机器,其原理是让说话者听到自己稍有延迟的说话声音,这个装置可以治疗在特定演讲中容易结巴的人。
AIG CEO Robert Benmosche will be voted CEO of the Year.
Golden State righted itself over the next few months. Kevin Durant suffered an injury which let Stephen Curry be Stephen Curry again, and when Kevin Durant returned, the team had found a balance between their two MVPs. The result was a terrifying burst through the playoffs, as the Warriors swept the Western Conference playoffs. Portland offered no resistance. Utah put up a noble effort but still couldn't get a game. The Spurs led by 20 ... and then Kawhi Leonard went down with an injurywhen Zaza Pachulia stuck his foot out, and that was that.
我曾被一位CEO要求雇用一位有着乌黑长发的长腿美眉,虽然她的能力不强。还有一次,我被要求不要雇用有小孩的应聘者,因为公司已经雇用了太多为了看足球赛请假的员工。这种事经常发生。
Another common path to job loss is the habitual obsession that many employees have with social media. Some companies have taken measures to monitor or limit their employees’ social media use, while others have blocked these sites completely. So beware: spending too much time on social media or other websites not related to your work can cost you your job.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

2015年35城供求报告发布 呼和浩特压力最大

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 下面就是今年汽车业所经历的高峰和低谷:
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Of the other teams, Germany have a fantastic team, with some great options all over the pitch. The Italians can never be discounted at tournaments, whilst Portugal, with Ronaldo in the team will be dangerous, and Belgium, with such an array of talent will be amongst everyone's list of dark horses.
  • 又到楼市“金九” 南京欲推万套新房
  • Premiered on Jan 29, the drama received 7 points out of 10 on the country's popular review website Douban.
  • 写字楼会否成为下一个投资风口
  • 坦率地讲,这种行为意味着你还只是一个小女孩,还算不上女人。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • “互联网+家居建材”三大模式下 家居建材市场商机在何方
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 去年此时,罗丝·麦高恩以强奸罪控告制作人哈维·韦恩斯,在娱乐圈引发轩然大波,众多控告纷至沓来。
  • 14) When socializing, I don't find the right things to talk about 0 1 2 3 4

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

住建部开展质量检查 保障性住房是重点

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